Volume 2 issue 7

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Publication Date: 25th August 2021

Paper id:0100061IJESIR     Open Access

Title: Buddhist Stupas and Their Symbols in Vajrayana Buddhism in Bhutan

Year: 2021  Abstract             Full Paper     [Download]          Page:4-24

Abstract: In vajrayāna tradition in Bhutan, stūpas are known as Chorten, a means of offering or the sacred spot of worship. It symbolizes the special presence of three bodies of Buddha (Tib: Ku-sung-thug) considered the important religious monuments focused on daily worship. The scriptural and structural portrayal of the Chorten is different from the initial structural design in Buddha’s time, with the various structural designs symbolizing the various virtues in vajrayāna tradition. The legendary eight chortens are incredibly built-in Bhutan.  It commemorates the eight different Buddha Shakyamuni’s life in eight distinctive holy places like Lumbini, Bodhgaya, Varanasi, Shravasti, Shankasa, Rajgir, Vaishali, and Kushinagar in Nepal and India, with slightly different structural designs among them. Apart from the eight commemorative chortens of Buddha, different chorten designs are seen on highways, the hilltop, the valley, river junctions, crossroads, mountain passes, bridges, and considered inauspicious locations symbolizing each differently in vajrayāna tradition in Bhutan. Thus, in this context, this dissertation primarily focuses on the structural symbolism of Buddhist eight chortens and other multiple Bhutanese style chortens, which are symbolically kept sacred and value instinctively within the vajarayāna tradition in Bhutan. The paper tries to understand the evolution of Buddhist stūpas and its revolution of distinctive foundational layouts and structural design to vajarayāna tradition in Bhutan. This study also explores the symbolism of the distinctive shapes incorporated in the chortens. It aims to clarify the symbolism and sacred foundational construction layout of multiple Bhutanese style chortens and the merits of building and circumambulate the chortens in the vajrayāna tradition in Bhutan.

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Paper id:0100062IJESIR     Open Access

Title: Academic Malpractice in Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria: Implications for Quality Education, Quality Graduates and the Nation

Year: 2021  Abstract             Full Paper     [Download]          Page:24-35

Abstract: This paper focuses on the impact of academic malpractices on the quality of education, the quality of graduates and the nation.  So far in Nigeria, we are only talking about examination malpractice which is an integral part of academic malpractice. Academic malpractice is any reprehensible and unhealthy activity or practice that relates to any academic matter. This paper has focused on the actions and activities of individuals relating to academic matters in academic institutions that constitute academic malpractices. The causes, the perpetrators and the various forms of such malpractices are discussed in the paper. Academic malpractices pose a great threat to the quality of education, the quality of graduates and the nation. Recommendations are made at the end of the paper, on how to nib the threats in the bud.

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Paper id:0100063IJESIR     Open Access

Title: Impacts of introducing exotic chicken breeds and their crosses on local chickens in Ethiopia

Year: 2021  Abstract       [Download]         Full Paper   [Download]    Page:

Abstract: This study reviews the introduction of the exotic breeds and cross-breeding of local chicken in Ethiopia, solution to genetic erosion and needs for conservation with aim of delivering in the short form and clear information for beneficiaries. Poultry production and its product consumption are progressively increasing globally. In Ethiopia, chicken production plays a great role as a primary supply of eggs and meat in rural and urban areas and as a source of income for smallholder farmers. The interest of the farmers to maximize poultry products is increasing. Therefore, different parts of the farmers are practicing crossbreeding unsystematically. However, crossbreeding is not advised and recommended by government due to its impact on genetic diversity and losing of the important traits of local chickens; thus, policy of the government has prepared different strategies to improve livestock development. There is no good breeding scheme introduced so far to avoid such kind of impacts or else regulator laws to avoid uncontrolled breeding activities. Therefore, conservation of locally adapted indigenous chicken breeds has become an important objective in sustainable animal breeding, as these breeds represent a unique genetic resource. And even if the indigenous chickens are low in productive performance, it has its unique and important characteristics such as brooding, tolerance of the disease and harsh environment of tropics, and giving good product under good management condition. Hence, breeding program targeting improvement of indigenous chicken should focus on within breed selection rather than crossbreeding with exotic chicken breeds, this would help to maintain the indigenous chicken unique attributes which are appreciated by producers and avoid genetic erosion and dilution and contribute to their conservation. Nevertheless, the indigenous chicken breeds in most African specifically in Ethiopia countries are little studied and the existing reports lack consistency. Therefore, further research is recommended to evaluate the performance, egg quality and carcass yield potentials of indigenous chickens under improved feeding and management systems.

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Paper id:0100064IJESIR     Open Access

Title: Numerical simulation on Ferro fluids heat transfer characteristics and applications –A Review

Year: 2021  Abstract       [Download]         Full Paper    [Download]     Page:

Abstract: Recent researches of ferrofluid have used high potential flow fluid for industrial applications such as medical applications, spacecraft propulsion, energy harvesting, the electronic device of hard disks and mechanical engineering of friction diminishes, etc. In this scrutiny is revealed the thermal properties of Ferro fluid such as heat energy, heat capacity, viscosity by using numerical simulation. The numerical studies have an emerging trend for study the heat and mass transfer characteristics of ferrofluid by the researchers. The present investigation of ferrofluid characteristics based on the various conditions such as temperature on materials, size of the particles, inlet velocity of the fluid and other thermo physical properties are studied. This review scenario of ferrofluid has been revealed the future development of different nanofluids for various industrial applications.

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Paper id:0100065IJESIR     Open Access



Year: 2021  Abstract       [Download]         Full Paper     [Download]    Page:

Abstract: The K to 12 MAPEH curriculum seeks to develop 21st century skills among learners, including cognitive skills of critical thinking, problem-solving and creative thinking; the social or interpersonal skills of communication, collaboration, leadership; and cross-cultural skills and personal characteristics. The integration of music, arts, physical education and health is essential in enriching students’ educational experience, since the competencies and values derived from these four areas are important in preparing them to interact and prosper in an increasingly complex and diverse society.

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