Volume 02, Issue 01, 2021

 

  ______Articles_____  

Click Here to download the Table of Content   Publication Date: 25th January 2021

Paper id:0100014IJESIR      Open Access

Title: A learning health system for a clinical problem

Year: 2021  Abstract       [Download]        Full Paper       [Download]    Page: 4-10 

Abstract The future of healthcare depends on integrating the past research results in healthcare with the researchers, clinicians, and informaticians’ innovative ideas to form a platform where continuous learning can occur. The concept of continuous learning and the best use of the knowledge and technologies develop a Learning Health System. The Learning Health System is used to address clinical issues and make healthcare a better version. In this study, we searched on the Learning Health System(LHS) concepts, LHS features, advantages, and challenges from Google Scholar, PubMed, and the University of St Andrews’ learning guidelines. We also focused on how opioid overdose is increasing at an alarming rate in the United States of America. This rise in opioid use in patients suffering from chronic pain is a clinical issue and causes more extended hospital stays due to opioid treatment. Based on the previous study and research carried out in the United States of America, we proposed a model. The proposed model’s design is based on the concept of a continuous Learning Health System that can be used to address chronic pain, which is a clinical issue in patients who are on long-term opioid use.

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Paper id:0100015IJESIR     Open Access

Title: Depression due to Covid-19 on Teenagers during Lockdown- A Review by Clinical Pharmacist 

Year: 2021  Abstract       [Download]         Full Paper   [Download]     Page: 11-14

Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of depression in teenagers during the COVID-19 pandemic. It also aimed at identifying the determinants of depression. As a result of COVID-19, teenagers and adolescents have experienced unknown interruptions to their daily lives. It is awaited that this disruption may be precipitants of mental illness, including Anxiety, Depression, and other stress-related symptoms. The information was analyzed in three consecutive levels, such as univariate, bivariate, and multivariate. Around 15% of the teenager reportedly had moderately severe depression. The binary logistic regression suggests that older students have greater depression (95%). It is also evident that students who provided private tuition in these pre-pandemic periods had depression (QR = 1.199). It is expected that government could work to fix the academic delays and financial problems to reduce depression in teenagers during COVID-19. Depression was determined by using the patient health questionnaire (PHQ – 9 ). PHQ-9 is an easy way to use in a questionnaire for screening depression of responses that are used to predict depression of an individual and what state is during the survey. PHQ-9 is useful for detecting depression. The level of depression for the study was categorized as mild = 5- 9. Moderate = 10 – 14. Moderately severe = 15 – 19. Severe = > 20.

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Paper id:0100016IJESIR     Open Access

Title: A Review and Update on Male Infertility Problems Based on Present Status

Year: 2021  Abstract       [Download]  Full Paper       [Download]         Page: 12-20

Abstract Healthy semen quality plays an important role in maintaining the healthy fertilizing ability of spermatozoa. Male infertility is a global problem with increasing male semen quality in men living in Asia, Europe, Africa, and North America. The sperm acquire proactive mechanisms during spermatogenesis and their maturations, they still remain viable for toxic insult. Healthy semen quality is a major contributor to infertility. Studies prove that different factors such as exposure to pesticides, heavy metals, obesity, tobacco, smoking, industrial chemicals, alcoholism, sedentary lifestyle, poor nutrient intake oxidative stress, physiological and genetic factors can decrease male fertility. Routine semen analysis and assays for sperm chromatin integrity are the most widely utilized and best studies adjunctive diagnostics in male infertility. Now, scientists have found many different options for male infertility problems. This review article summarizes protective mechanisms of spermatogenesis, causes, diagnosis, and both traditional and modern treatment approaches of male infertility. This review article highlights present issues and directions for further exploration of the male infertility problems.

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Paper id:0100017IJESIR     Open Access

Title: Menopause, cognition and dementia- A Review

Year: 2021  Abstract       [Download]      Full Paper  [Download]          Page:21-25 

Abstract There is increasing evidence that menopausal changes can have an impact on women’s cognition and potentially, the future development of dementia. In particular, the role of reduced levels of estrogens in postmenopausal changes has been linked to an increased risk of developing dementia in observational studies. Not surprisingly, this has led to several clinical trials investigating whether postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy can potentially delay/avoid cognitive changes and, subsequently, the onset of dementia. However, the evidence of these trials has been mixed, with some showing positive effects while others show no or even negative effects. Based on the current evidence, we conclude that previous approaches may have used a mixture of women with different genetic risk factors for dementia which might explain these contradicting findings. Therefore, it is recommended that future interventional studies take a more personalized approach towards hormone replacement therapy use in postmenopausal women.

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Paper id:0100018IJESIR    Open Access

Title: Review on Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever

Year:2021  Abstract       [Download]    Full Paper   [Download]         Page:26-31 

Abstract Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a vector-borne viral disease, widely distributed in different regions of the world. CCHF caused by a tick-borne virus (Nairovirus) which belongs to the Bunyaviridae family. The virus is highly pathogenic in nature, can be easily, and has a high fatality rate of 10-40%. The reservoir and vector of CCHFV are the ticks of the Hyalomma genus. Therefore, the circulation of this virus depends upon the distribution of the ticks. The virus can be transmitted from the tick to an animal, animal to human, and human to human. The major symptoms of CCHF are headache, high fever, abdominal pain, myalgia, hypotension, and flushed face. As the disease progresses, severe symptoms start appearing, such as petechiae, ecchymosis, epistaxis, bleeding gums and emesis. CCHF can be diagnosed by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, antigen detection, serum neutralization, and isolation of the virus by cell culture. There is no specific antiviral therapy available for CCHF. However, ribavirin has been approved by the World Health Organization for the treatment of CCHFV infection. Awareness campaigns regarding the risk factors and control measures can aid in reducing the spread of this disease to a greater extent, particularly in developing countries.

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Paper id:0100019IJESIR    Open Access

Title: A review article on cephalosporin antibiotics history and update

Year:2021  Abstract       [Download]    Full Paper   [Download]         Page:32-37 

Abstract The bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae causes the sexually transmitted infection (STI) gonorrhea, which has an estimated global annual incidence of 86.9 million adults. Gonorrhea can present as urethritis in men, cervicitis or urethritis in women, and in extragenital sites (pharynx, rectum, conjunctiva and, rarely, systemically) in both sexes. Its causative agent, Neisseria gonorrhea, has shown remarkable flexibility to adapt and become resistant to all antimicrobials introduced over the past century for gonococcal therapy. The currently last available first-line therapy that is recommended in most countries is ceftriaxone. However, resistance levels against ceftriaxone are rising globally, and incidences of confirmed treatment failure are increasingly encountered, particularly with the global spreading of the ceftriaxone-resistant FC428 clone in recent years. Resistance against most antimicrobials has been the result of adaptive genomic mutations that reduce the affinity of the antimicrobial to its target protein or rRNA. Confirmation of the diagnosis requires microscopy of Gram-stained samples, bacterial culture, or nucleic acid amplification tests. As no gonococcal vaccine is available, prevention relies on promoting safe sexual behaviors. Improved global surveillance of the emergence, evolution, fitness, and geographical and temporal spread of AMR in N. gonorrhea, and improved understanding of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics for current and future antimicrobials in the treatment of urogenital and extragenital gonorrhea, are essential to inform treatment guidelines. Key priorities for gonorrhea control include strengthening prevention, early diagnosis, and treatment of patients and their partners; decreasing stigma; expanding surveillance of AMR and treatment failures; and promoting responsible antimicrobial use. To ensure gonococcal treatment remains available in the future, both alternative clinically approved antimicrobials and novel antimicrobials have been intensely studied both in gonococcal susceptibility analyses and clinical efficacy trials. Although there have been some limited successes, all studied alternative therapies that reached clinical trials have displayed some shortcomings in their efficacy against pharyngeal infections and/or overlapping resistance determinants with previously or currently used antimicrobials. This review summarizes the development of gonococcal antimicrobial resistance over the past century, describes the mechanisms involved in antimicrobial resistance, and provides an overview of the alternative therapies that have been under investigation this past decade.

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Paper id:0100020IJESIR    Open Access

Title: A Review on Antimicrobial Resistant Gonorrhoea

Year:2021  Abstract       [Download]    Full Paper   [Download]         Page:38-53 

Abstract The bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae causes the sexually transmitted infection (STI) gonorrhoea, which has an estimated global annual incidence of 86.9 million adults. Gonorrhoea can present as urethritis in men, cervicitis or urethritis in women, and in extra genital sites (pharynx, rectum, conjunctiva and, rarely, systemically) in both sexes [1:18:19:20]. Its causative agent, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, has shown a remarkable flexibility to adapt and become resistant to all antimicrobials introduced over the past century for gonococcal therapy. The currently last available first-line therapy that is recommended in most countries is ceftriaxone. However, resistance levels against ceftriaxone are rising globally and incidences of confirmed treatment failure are increasingly encountered, particularly with the global spreading of the ceftriaxone-resistant FC428 clone in recent years. Resistance against most antimicrobials has been the result of adaptive genomic mutations that reduce affinity of the antimicrobial to its target protein or rRNA [2]. Confirmation of the diagnosis requires microscopy of Gram- stained samples, bacterial culture or nucleic acid amplification tests. As no gonococcal vaccine is available, prevention relies on promoting safe sexual behaviors. Improved global surveillance of the emergence, evolution, fitness, and geographical and temporal spread of AMR in N. gonorrhoeae, and improved understanding of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics for current and future antimicrobials in the treatment of urogenital and extra genital gonorrhoeae, are essential to inform treatment guidelines. Key priorities for gonorrhoea control include strengthening prevention, early diagnosis, and treatment of patients and their partners; decreasing stigma; expanding surveillance of AMR and treatment failures; and promoting responsible antimicrobial use [1:18:19:20]. To ensure gonococcal treatment remains available in the future, both alternative clinically approved antimicrobials and novel antimicrobials have been intensely studied both in gonococcal susceptibility analyses and clinical efficacy trials. Although there have been some limited successes, all studied alternative therapies that reached clinical trials have displayed some shortcomings in their efficacy against pharyngeal infections and/or overlapping resistance determinants with previously or currently used antimicrobials. This review summarizes the development of gonococcal antimicrobial resistance over the past century, describes the mechanisms involved in antimicrobial resistance, and provides an overview of the alternative therapies that have been under investigation this past decade [2].

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